Drafting of the manuscript: The spatial-orientation hypothesis, in which it is suggested that there is confusion in respect of direction and orientation of reading and writing, sometimes associated with spatial confusion.
This review considers mirror writing from the neurological perspective. Multimedia Abstract This minireview concerns a new observation on mirror writing.
Transient left-handed mirror writing is also sometimes observed when conventional writing is no longer possible in otherwise healthy right-handed individuals, for example, after the right arm has been damaged.
Analysis and interpretation of data: New insights We have observed that a surprisingly large number of reported left-handed mirror writers are those whose native languages have traditionally been written and read leftward.
Dehaene claims that reading came too late in evolutionary processes to have been specifically developed for and therefore has usurped certain structures that were available for use given the right kind of environment e.
This is evident from various individual reports of Japanese and Chinese patients, most of whom mirror wrote after usually left hemispheric vascular lesions, and the polyglot who, following head injury, selectively mirror wrote and read Hebrew script, while normal reading and writing of Polish remained.
Back to top Article Information Correspondence: In addition, as was postulated in the case of ancient Semitic mirror writing, it may well be not only the direction of writing itself but also the right hemisphere involvement in leftward direction of eye movements and the left visual fields that are important.
The motor center hypothesis, in which it is postulated that there are motor programs in the brain, with the programs represented bilaterally but in mirror form in the 2 hemispheres.
The purpose of this practice by Leonardo remains unknown, though several possible reasons have been suggested. Concerning possible underlying processes, the implications of using the left hand when writing are considered first. This hypothesis was proposed because these conditions affect a "neural mechanism that controls the higher cerebral function of writing via the thalamus.
An alternative theory is that the process of rotating the linguistic object in memory before setting it to paper, and rotating it before reading it back, is a method of reinforcement learning. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: But I do think that my dyslexia may be involved.
This suggests that, although ideographic languages are extensively processed in the right hemisphere, it is less the structure and more the leftward direction of these languages that is important and that drives, or is driven by, the contralateral right hemisphere.
Mirror writing is seen in normal and pathological circumstances. What is your favorite memory boosting secret?
Writing customs change over time, and the characteristically leftward and vertical directions of much Asian writing are now becoming less common. A higher proportion of left-handed people are better mirror writers than right-handed people, perhaps because it is more natural for a left-hander to write backwards.
It is a neat trick for a child to produce a perfect mirrored-form, which they have never been taught, as readily as the correct form that they have been shown repeatedly.
Much of the discussion in this article has to do with people changing hands from their dominate one or using both hands simultaneously. Depicts the phrase Ali is the vicegerent of God in both directions.
This heterogeneity raises the issue of whether mirror writing comprises a single entity. The visual hypothesis, in which it is similarly envisaged that there are bilateral visual memory traces engrams in the brain, the nondominant usually right hemisphere engram being in mirrored form and again normally suppressed.If this adjustment is not realized, mirror writing of letters and words with the non-dominant hand will occur (Cubelli, ; Rodriguez, Aguilar, & Gonzalez, ), Like orientation, the number of letter strokes is specified at the level of the abstract motor program but the accurate production of letter shapes depends upon the actual context of ongoing.
Jun 08, · 5 Easy and Simple Tips to Writing with Left Hand | Non-dominant Hand - Duration: What does MIRROR WRITING mean? MIRROR WRITING meaning Backwards Handwriting or mirror image writing. Mirror writing runs in the opposite direction to normal and with letters reversed, and it is most easily read using a mirror.
It is usually written leftward with the left hand, and its occurrence often appears to be linked to the circumstances in which left. Mirror writing is formed by writing in the direction that is the reverse of the natural way for a given language, such that the result is the mirror image of normal writing: it appears normal when it is reflected in a mirror.
Thus, mirror writing with the left hand is not a bizarre form of writing at all, but predictable, and presumably a form of writing that is normally suppressed or superseded by conventional writing in order to be read. Unintentional mirror-writing suggests a tension between a tendency for our brains to treat mirror-images as equivalent, and a culturally imposed need to distinguish between them for written language.
This article explores the various manifestations of mirror-writing, and the ideas put forward to account for it.Download